English

The ocean

The ocean is the largest ecosystem in the world containing over 97% of all of Earth’s water and producing some 50% of the atmosphere’s oxygen. The ocean plays an important role in the natural carbon cycle, but increased greenhouse gas emissions have created an imbalance in the cycle.

References:

https://marine-conservation.org/what-we-do/advocate/why-we-protect-our-oceans/

https://marine-conservation.org/what-we-do/program-areas/climate-change/climate-carbon/

https://marine-conservation.org/what-we-do/program-areas/climate-change/

http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/blue_planet/open_ocean/ocean_importance/

https://plastmengun.wixsite.com/plastmengun/copy-of-oerplast-i-skolpi

References for ocean acidity:

http://www.loftslag.is/?page_id=476 (retrieved 8.02.2017)

References for warming sea temperatures:
https://www.visindavefur.is/svar.php?id=4922 (retrieved 27.02.2017)

Illustration for warming oceans:

http://www.climate.rocksea.org/images/climate/ocean_warming_phytoplankton_decline.jpg (retrieved 27.02.2017)

https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/AR5_SYR_FINAL_SPM.pdf

https://www.ust.is/einstaklingar/loftslagsbreytingar/ahrif-a-jordina/

Freysteinn Sigmundsson and Helgi Björnsson. “How much does seawater rise by Iceland’s south-eastern shore in the next 20 years if all the glaciers on the planet melt?” The Icelandic Web of Science, 13. April 2011. Retrieved 5. June 2017. http://visindavefur.is/svar.php?id=58733

http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/sealevel.html

http://jardvis.hi.is/joklar_islandi)

Jón Ólafsson. “What are ocean currents?” The Icelandic Web of Science, 10. November 2006. Retrieved 4. June 2017. http://visindavefur.is/svar.php?id=6372

Rannveig Magnúsdóttir. “What effect would the climate have on the world if all the rainforests of the planet disappeared?” The Icelandic Web of Science, 6. February 2012. Retrieved 4. June 2017. http://visindavefur.is/svar.php?id=57417 ).

(Jón Ólafsson. “What are ocean currents?” The Icelandic Web of Science, 10. November 2006. Retrieved 4. June 2017. http://visindavefur.is/svar.php?id=6372 )

Pg. 47 https://www.umhverfisraduneyti.is/media/PDF_skrar/visindanefndloftslagsbreytingar.pdf

https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/CarbonCycle/page5.php

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/climate-consensus-97-per-cent/2017/mar/10/earths-oceans-are-warming-13-faster-than-thought-and-accelerating

Þóra Árnadóttir o.fl. 2009. Glacial rebound and plate spreading: Results from the first countrywide GPS observations in Iceland, Geophys. J. Int., 177(2), 691-716.

Íslenska

Hafið

Hafið er stærsta vistkerfi jarðarinnar og myndar helming þess súrefnis sem er í andrúmsloftinu. Hafið er leiðandi í hringrás kolefnis en aukin losun gróðurhúsalofttegunda af mannavöldum hefur truflað þá hringrás. Meira en 97% alls vatns jarðarinnar er í höfunum.

Heimildir:

https://marine-conservation.org/what-we-do/advocate/why-we-protect-our-oceans/

https://plastmengun.wixsite.com/plastmengun/copy-of-oerplast-i-skolpi

https://marine-conservation.org/what-we-do/program-areas/climate-change/climate-carbon/

https://marine-conservation.org/what-we-do/program-areas/climate-change/

http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/blue_planet/open_ocean/ocean_importance/

Heimildaskrá fyrir súrnun sjávar:

http://www.loftslag.is/?page_id=476 (sótt 8.02.2017)

https://www.visindavefur.is/svar.php?id=4922 (sótt 27.02.2017)

http://www.climate.rocksea.org/images/climate/ocean_warming_phytoplankton_decline.jpg (sótt 27.02.2017)

https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/AR5_SYR_FINAL_SPM.pdf

https://www.ust.is/einstaklingar/loftslagsbreytingar/ahrif-a-jordina/

Freysteinn Sigmundsson og Helgi Björnsson. „Hve mikið hækkar sjávarstaða við suðausturströnd Íslands á næstu 20 árum við bráðnun jökla á jörðinni?“ Vísindavefurinn, 13. apríl 2011. Sótt 5. júní 2017. http://visindavefur.is/svar.php?id=58733

http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/sealevel.html

http://jardvis.hi.is/joklar_islandi)

Jón Ólafsson. „Hvað eru hafstraumar?“ Vísindavefurinn, 10. nóvember 2006. Sótt 4. júní 2017. http://visindavefur.is/svar.php?id=6372

Rannveig Magnúsdóttir. „Hvaða áhrif hefði það á loftslag í heiminum ef allir regnskógar jarðarinnar eyddust?“ Vísindavefurinn, 6. febrúar 2012. Sótt 4. júní 2017. http://visindavefur.is/svar.php?id=57417 ).

Jón Ólafsson. „Hvað eru hafstraumar?“ Vísindavefurinn, 10. nóvember 2006. Sótt 4. júní 2017. http://visindavefur.is/svar.php?id=6372

https://www.umhverfisraduneyti.is/media/PDF_skrar/visindanefndloftslagsbreytingar.pdf

https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/CarbonCycle/page5.php

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/climate-consensus-97-per-cent/2017/mar/10/earths-oceans-are-warming-13-faster-than-thought-and-accelerating